Come on, just do some calculus.
Parlez-vous français ?
Not at 7:30 we don't!
Je ne comprends pas les maths.
Non. Je n'arrête pas.
We are going to fail this class if you don't do some calculus right now.
That's better. Now compute the integral.
...L'intégrale est de quelque-chose à quelque chose... Les maths en français, oui?
LH 95 is a star forming region within a nearby galaxy that astronomers have been observing for several years in order to gain insight on the formation of stars. This particular photo was very valuable to scientists, as it not only captured the bright, massive stars (blue), but also many dim and young stars (yellow) as well.
Credit: Hubble Heritage Team, D. Gouliermis (MPI Heidelberg) et al., (STScI/AURA), ESA, NASA
For more astronomy, check out AstronomyForAmateurs.com
Follow your gut: the brain & gut bacteria
The next frontier of medicine isn’t in the depths of an Amazon jungle or in an air-conditioned lab; it’s in the rich and mysterious bacterial swamp of your gut. Long viewed as an enemy within, bacteria in the body have been subjected to a century-long war in which antibiotics have been the medical weapon of choice. But today, the scientific consensus about our body’s relationship with the trillions of microbes that call it home—collectively known as the microbiome—is changing dramatically. From potentially shaping our personalities to fighting obesity, the bacteria in our bellies play a much stronger role in our overall health than we once thought.
Developments in sequencing technology in the last decade have allowed scientists to better understand gut bacteria, and recent studies have shed light on how our digestive systems may mold brain structure when we’re young and influence our moods, feelings, and behavior when we’re adults. Scientists experimenting on mice have found links between gut bacteria and conditions similar to autism and anxiety in humans.
While it’s still early, the implications of better understanding how gut bacteria impacts our minds and bodies could change the way doctors treat myriad conditions, says Michael A. Fischbach, a microbiologist at UC San Francisco (UCSF). “If we use history as a guide, a lot of ideas probably won’t work out,” Fischbach says. “But even if one of them does, it’s a huge deal.”
Interviewer: What makes Fred laugh every time?
Carrie Brownstein: Me, screaming.
Our movie. :)
OCHEM, LIGHT OF MY LIFE, FIRE OF MY SOUL
THIS IS THE WORST THING TO EVER HAPPEN AND I HATE IT SO MUCH
Daddy, were you in the shower?
Yes, I was in the shower.
I was dirty. The shower gets me clean.
Why does the shower get me clean?
Because the water washes the dirt away when I use soap.
Why do I use soap?
Because the soap grabs the dirt and lets the water wash it off.
Why does the soap grab the dirt?
Because soap is a surfactant.
Why is soap a surfactant?
That is an EXCELLENT question. Soap is a surfactant because it forms water-soluble micelles that trap the otherwise insoluble dirt and oil particles.
Why does soap form micelles?
Soap molecules are long chains with a polar, hydrophilic head and a non-polar, hydrophobic tail. Can you say ‘hydrophilic’?
And can you say ‘hydrophobic’?
Excellent! The word ‘hydrophobic’ means that it avoids water.
Why does it mean that?
It’s Greek! ‘Hydro’ means water and ‘phobic’ means ‘fear of’. ‘Phobos’ is fear. So ‘hydrophobic’ means ‘afraid of water’.
Like a monster?
You mean, like being afraid of a monster?
A scary monster, sure. If you were afraid of a monster, a Greek person would say you were gorgophobic.
(rolls her eyes) I thought we were talking about soap.
We are talking about soap.
Why do the molecules have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail?
Because the C-O bonds in the head are highly polar, and the C-H bonds in the tail are effectively non-polar.
Because while carbon and hydrogen have almost the same electronegativity, oxygen is far more electronegative, thereby polarizing the C-O bonds.
Why is oxygen more electronegative than carbon and hydrogen?
That’s complicated. There are different answers to that question, depending on whether you’re talking about the Pauling or Mulliken electronegativity scales. The Pauling scale is based on homo- versus heteronuclear bond strength differences, while the Mulliken scale is based on the atomic properties of electron affinity and ionization energy. But it really all comes down to effective nuclear charge. The valence electrons in an oxygen atom have a lower energy than those of a carbon atom, and electrons shared between them are held more tightly to the oxygen, because electrons in an oxygen atom experience a greater nuclear charge and therefore a stronger attraction to the atomic nucleus! Cool, huh?
I don’t get it.
That’s OK. Neither do most of my students.
(The Dad is Stephen McNeil, "an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the University of British Columbia Okanagan in Kelowna, British Columbia.")
Histology look-a-like #29
Colon (transverse section) v Purple African daisies
Microscopically, the mucosal lining of the colon exhibits many crypts of Lieberkuhn (intestinal glands) that are lined with mucus secreting goblet cells.
Mucus is useful in this region because it assists in lubricating the tube to allow dry feces to be passed along easily (decreases friction).
When the a slice is made through the mucosa parallel with its orientation and stained specifically for mucin, these crypts glands look remarkably like a field full of daisies. The goblet cells look like colorful petals.
Be warned however, this is one posy that you really don’t want to sniff.
Happy Friday one and all.